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This article applies to: ✔️ .NET Core 2.0 SDK and later versions

The global.json file allows you to define which .NET SDK version is used when you run .NET CLI commands. Selecting the .NET SDK is independent from specifying the runtime your project targets. The .NET SDK version indicates which versions of the .NET CLI is used.

In general, you want to use the latest version of the SDK tools, so no global.json file is needed. In some advanced scenarios, you might want to control the version of the SDK tools, and this article explains how to do this.

For more information about specifying the runtime instead, see Target frameworks.

The .NET SDK looks for a global.json file in the current working directory (which isn't necessarily the same as the project directory) or one of its parent directories.

global.json schema

sdk

Type: object

Specifies information about the .NET SDK to select.

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version

  • Type: string

  • Available since: .NET Core 1.0 SDK.

The version of the .NET SDK to use.

This field:

  • Doesn't have wildcard support, that is, the full version number has to be specified.
  • Doesn't support version ranges.

allowPrerelease

  • Type: boolean

  • Available since: .NET Core 3.0 SDK.

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Indicates whether the SDK resolver should consider prerelease versions when selecting the SDK version to use.

If you don't set this value explicitly, the default value depends on whether you're running from Visual Studio:

  • If you're not in Visual Studio, the default value is true.
  • If you are in Visual Studio, it uses the prerelease status requested. That is, if you're using a Preview version of Visual Studio or you set the Use previews of the .NET Core SDK option (under Tools > Options > Environment > Preview Features), the default value is true; otherwise, false.

rollForward

  • Type: string

  • Available since: .NET Core 3.0 SDK.

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The roll-forward policy to use when selecting an SDK version, either as a fallback when a specific SDK version is missing or as a directive to use a higher version. A version must be specified with a rollForward value, unless you're setting it to latestMajor.The default roll forward behavior is determined by the matching rules.

To understand the available policies and their behavior, consider the following definitions for an SDK version in the format x.y.znn:

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  • x is the major version.
  • y is the minor version.
  • z is the feature band.
  • nn is the patch version.

The following table shows the possible values for the rollForward key:

ValueBehavior
patchUses the specified version.
If not found, rolls forward to the latest patch level.
If not found, fails.
This value is the legacy behavior from the earlier versions of the SDK.
featureUses the latest patch level for the specified major, minor, and feature band.
If not found, rolls forward to the next higher feature band within the same major/minor and uses the latest patch level for that feature band.
If not found, fails.
minorUses the latest patch level for the specified major, minor, and feature band.
If not found, rolls forward to the next higher feature band within the same major/minor version and uses the latest patch level for that feature band.
If not found, rolls forward to the next higher minor and feature band within the same major and uses the latest patch level for that feature band.
If not found, fails.
majorUses the latest patch level for the specified major, minor, and feature band.
If not found, rolls forward to the next higher feature band within the same major/minor version and uses the latest patch level for that feature band.
If not found, rolls forward to the next higher minor and feature band within the same major and uses the latest patch level for that feature band.
If not found, rolls forward to the next higher major, minor, and feature band and uses the latest patch level for that feature band.
If not found, fails.
latestPatchUses the latest installed patch level that matches the requested major, minor, and feature band with a patch level and that is greater or equal than the specified value.
If not found, fails.
latestFeatureUses the highest installed feature band and patch level that matches the requested major and minor with a feature band and patch level that is greater or equal than the specified value.
If not found, fails.
latestMinorUses the highest installed minor, feature band, and patch level that matches the requested major with a minor, feature band, and patch level that is greater or equal than the specified value.
If not found, fails.
latestMajorUses the highest installed .NET SDK with a version that is greater or equal than the specified value.
If not found, fail.
disableDoesn't roll forward. Exact match required.

msbuild-sdks

Type: object

Lets you control the project SDK version in one place rather than in each individual project. For more information, see How project SDKs are resolved.

Examples

The following example shows how to not use prerelease versions:

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The following example shows how to use the highest version installed that is greater or equal than the specified version. The JSON shown disallows any SDK version earlier than 2.2.200 and allows 2.2.200 or any later version, including 3.0.xxx and 3.1.xxx.

The following example shows how to use the exact specified version:

The following example shows how to use the latest feature band and patch version installed of a specific major and minor version. The JSON shown disallows any SDK version earlier than 3.1.102 and allows 3.1.102 or any later 3.1.xxx version, such as 3.1.103 or 3.1.200.

The following example shows how to use the highest patch version installed of a specific version. The JSON shown disallows any SDK version earlier than 3.1.102 and allows 3.1.102 or any later 3.1.1xx version, such as 3.1.103 or 3.1.199.

File

global.json and the .NET CLI

It's helpful to know which SDK versions are installed on your machine to set one in the global.json file. For more information on how to do that, see How to check that .NET is already installed.

To install additional .NET SDK versions on your machine, visit the Download .NET page.

You can create a new global.json file in the current directory by executing the dotnet new command, similar to the following example:

Matching rules

Note

The matching rules are governed by the dotnet.exe entry point, which is common across all installed .NET installed runtimes. The matching rules for the latest installed version of the .NET Runtime are used when you have multiple runtimes installed side-by-side or if or you're using a global.json file.

Starting with .NET Core 3.0, the following rules apply when determining which version of the SDK to use:

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  • If no global.json file is found, or global.json doesn't specify an SDK version nor an allowPrerelease value, the highest installed SDK version is used (equivalent to setting rollForward to latestMajor). Whether prerelease SDK versions are considered depends on how dotnet is being invoked.

    • If you're not in Visual Studio, prerelease versions are considered.
    • If you are in Visual Studio, it uses the prerelease status requested. That is, if you're using a Preview version of Visual Studio or you set the Use previews of the .NET Core SDK option (under Tools > Options > Environment > Preview Features), prerelease versions are considered; otherwise, only release versions are considered.
  • If a global.json file is found that doesn't specify an SDK version but it specifies an allowPrerelease value, the highest installed SDK version is used (equivalent to setting rollForward to latestMajor). Whether the latest SDK version can be release or prerelease depends on the value of allowPrerelease. true indicates prerelease versions are considered; false indicates that only release versions are considered.

  • If a global.json file is found and it specifies an SDK version:

    • If no rollForward value is set, it uses latestPatch as the default rollForward policy. Otherwise, check each value and their behavior in the rollForward section.
    • Whether prerelease versions are considered and what's the default behavior when allowPrerelease isn't set is described in the allowPrerelease section.

In .NET Core 2.x SDK, the following rules apply when determining which version of the SDK to use:

  • If no global.json file is found or global.json doesn't specify an SDK version, the latest installed SDK version is used. Latest SDK version can be either release or prerelease - the highest version number wins.
  • If global.json does specify an SDK version:
    • If the specified SDK version is found on the machine, that exact version is used.
    • If the specified SDK version can't be found on the machine, the latest installed SDK patch version of that version is used. Latest installed SDK patch version can be either release or prerelease - the highest version number wins. In .NET Core 2.1 and higher, the patch versions lower than the patch version specified are ignored in the SDK selection.
    • If the specified SDK version and an appropriate SDK patch version can't be found, an error is thrown.

The SDK version is composed of the following parts:

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[.NET Core major version].[.NET Core minor version].[xyz][-optional preview name]

The feature release of the .NET Core SDK is represented by the first digit (x) in the last portion of the number (xyz) for SDK versions 2.1.100 and higher. In general, the .NET Core SDK has a faster release cycle than .NET Core.

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The patch version is defined by the last two digits (yz) in the last portion of the number (xyz) for SDK versions 2.1.100 and higher. For example, if you specify 2.1.300 as the SDK version, SDK selection finds up to 2.1.399 but 2.1.400 isn't considered a patch version for 2.1.300.

.NET Core SDK versions 2.1.100 through 2.1.201 were released during the transition between version number schemes and don't correctly handle the xyz notation. We highly recommend if you specify these versions in the global.json file, that you ensure the specified versions are on the target machines.

Troubleshoot build warnings

  • The following warning indicates that your project was compiled using a prerelease version of the .NET Core SDK:

    You are working with a preview version of the .NET Core SDK. You can define the SDK version via a global.json file in the current project. More at https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=869452.

    .NET Core SDK versions have a history and commitment of being high quality. However, if you don't want to use a prerelease version, check the different strategies you can use with the .NET Core 3.0 SDK or a later version in the allowPrerelease section. For machines that have never had a .NET Core 3.0 or higher Runtime or SDK installed, you need to create a global.json file and specify the exact version you want to use.

  • The following warning indicates that your project targets EF Core 1.0 or 1.1, which isn't compatible with .NET Core 2.1 SDK and later versions:

    Startup project '{startupProject}' targets framework '.NETCoreApp' version '{targetFrameworkVersion}'. This version of the Entity Framework Core .NET Command-line Tools only supports version 2.0 or higher. For information on using older versions of the tools, see https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=871254.

    Starting with .NET Core 2.1 SDK (version 2.1.300), the dotnet ef command comes included in the SDK. To compile your project, install .NET Core 2.0 SDK (version 2.1.201) or earlier on your machine and define the desired SDK version using the global.json file. For more information about the dotnet ef command, see EF Core .NET Command-line Tools.

See also

Json.NETDataContractJsonSerializerJavaScriptSerializer
Supports JSON
Supports BSON
Supports JSONPath
Supports .NET 2.0
Supports .NET 3.5
Supports .NET 4.0
Supports .NET 4.5
Supports Silverlight
Supports Windows Phone
Supports Windows Store
Supports Xamarin
Open Source
MIT License
LINQ to JSON
Thread Safe
XPath-like JSON query syntax
Indented JSON support
Deserializes IList, IEnumerable, ICollection, IDictionary properties
Serializes circular references
Supports serializing objects by reference
Deserializes polymorphic properties and collections
Supports including type names with JSON
Globally customize serialization process
Supports excluding null values when serializing
Supports SerializationBinder
Conditional property serialization
Includes line number information in errors
Converts XML to JSON and JSON to XML
Camel case JSON property names
Non-default constructors support
Serialization error handling
Supports populating an existing object
Efficiently serializes byte arrays as base64 text
Handles NaN, Infinity, -Infinity and undefined
Handles JavaScript constructors
Serializes .NET 4.0 dynamic objects
Serializes ISerializable objects
Supports serializing enums to their text name
JSON recursion limit support
Attribute property name customization
Attribute property order customization
Attribute property required customization
Supports ISO8601 dates
Supports JavaScript constructor dates
Supports Microsoft AJAX dates
Unquoted property names support
Raw JSON support
Supports reading and writing comments
Deserializes anonymous types
Opt-in property serialization
Opt-out property serialization
Efficiently stream reading and writing JSON
Single or double quote JSON content
Supports overriding a type's serialization
Supports OnDeserialized, OnSerializing, OnSerialized and OnDeserializing attributes
Supports serializing private properties
DataMember attribute support
MetdataType attribute support
DefaultValue attribute support
Serializes DataSets and DataTables
Serailizes Entity Framework
Serializes nHibernate
Case-insensitive property deserialization
Diagnostic tracing
Serializes read-only and immutable collections
Supports serialization extension data
Serializes F# discriminated unions
Serializes F# collections
Supports merging JSON